Anti-Corruption Certification

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Glossary of terms used on this site

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Term Definition
Active corruption

The act of paying or yielding to the solicitation of a bribe

Asset recovery

The task of recovery of assets that have been wrongfully taken either stolen, fraudulently misappropriated or otherwise disposed of to remove them from their rightful owner


A systematic examination of documents, statutory records, books, accounts and processes to ascertain how far the commitments of an organization are actually implemented and respected


Comparing one's business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies

Beneficial owner

A person who enjoys the benefits of ownership even though title to some form of property is in another name. It also means any individual or group of individuals who, either directly or indirectly, has the power to vote or influence the transaction decisions regarding a specific security, such as shares in a company


The act of offering someone money or something of value to persuade them to act in a way which is contrary to the law or professional obligations. Corruption has a broader meaning as it includes non-pecuniary undue advantages including nepotism, favoritism, etc.

Civil society

The aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifests the interests and the will of the citizens. Civil society includes the family and the private sphere, referred to as the third sector of society, distinct from government and business


An unequal system of exchanging resources and favors based on an exploitative relationship between a wealthier and/or more powerful ‘patron’ and a less wealthy and weaker ‘client’

Code of conduct

A set of values, rules and processes written for the employees of an organization to inform them of the organization’s expectations vis-à-vis their behavior


An agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal, but always secretive, to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair market advantage


Conforming with stated requirements. At an organizational level, it is achieved through management processes which identify the applicable requirements (defined for example in laws, regulations, contracts, strategies and policies), assess the state of compliance, assess the risks and potential costs of non-compliance against the projected expenses to achieve compliance, and hence prioritize, fund and initiate any corrective actions deemed necessary

Conflict of interest

A situation in which the concerns or aims of two different parties are incompatible. A situation in which a person is able to derive personal benefit from actions or decisions made in their official capacity


An association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal

Corporate governance

Consists of the set of processes, customs, policies, laws and institutions affecting the way people direct, administer or control a corporation. Corporate governance also includes the relationships among the many players involved (the stakeholders) and the corporate goals. The principal players include the shareholders, management, and the board of directors. Other stakeholders include employees, suppliers, customers, banks and other lenders, regulators, the environment and the community at large


Dishonest or fraudulent conduct, typically involving bribery. It is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. It can be classified as grand, petty and political depending on the amounts of money involved and the sector where it occurs