Anti-Corruption Certification

To get certified

Glossary of terms used on this site

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Sapin II law

A French law which addresses transparency, anti-corruption and economic modernization, and which came into force on 1 June 2017. Among other things, the law stipulates that companies must establish an anti-corruption program to identify and mitigate corruption risks. The law is the second law on anti-corruption issued from Michel Sapin, Finance Minister from 1992 – 1993 and from 2014 – 2017

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

An independent agency of the United States federal government. The SEC holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other activities and organizations

Serious Fraud Office (SFO)

The Serious Fraud Office is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom that investigates and prosecutes serious or complex fraud and corruption in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

Shell company

Non-trading firm formed (and often listed on a stock exchange) as a vehicle to (1) raise funds before starting operations, (2) attempt a takeover, (3) for going public, or (4) as a front for an illegal business


Act or instance of requesting or seeking bid, business, or information. Unlike an offer, a solicitation is not a clear indication of the intention to enter into a binding agreement. (Cf. extortion)

State capture

A type of systemic political corruption in which private interests significantly influence a state's decision-making processes to their own advantage